- outstanding Bachelor’s degree: at least 80% or 2.0 in German grading system
- Engineering math: linear algebra, complex analysis, linear differential equations, Fourier transform, Laplace transform, z-transform
- Signals and Systems (textbook, e.g., Oppenheim/Willsky, Signals and Systems)
- Communications (textbook, e.g., Haykin, Communication Systems)
- Stochastic Signals (textbook, e.g., Pillai/Papoulis: Probability, Random Variables, and Stochastic Processes)
- Minimum knowledge in Digital Signal Processing: A.V. Oppenheim and R. Schafer, Discrete-Time Signal Processing, 3rd edition, Prentice Hall, 2013.
- Software: MATLAB or Python